What is Burgundy wine?
Burgundy is a famous wine growing region in France.
White burgundy generally refers to the Chardonnay grape from the region in France called Burgundy. There are other white grapes sometimes found in Burgundy such as Aligote and rarely Sauvignon Blanc, however, white Burgundy is almost always Chardonnay.
Red Burgundy generally refers to the Pinot Noir grape from the region Burgundy in France. There is another red grape grown there called Gamay. However, red Burgundy, especially when called such, is almost always Pinot Noir.
There are different levels of quality in Burgundy. There are broad general regions such as Bourgogne and then village level, Premier Cru, and Grand Cru wines in that ascending order of quality. In Burgundy, the producer often trumps the vineyard source. Serious collectors of Burgundy are usually more concerned with who made the wine than which vineyard it came from.
When someone says a Chardonnay or Pinot Noir tastes Burgundian, they are usually implying cooler climate characteristics are being expressed in the wine and this also usually also means less obvious oak usage in the wine.